mechanize._form_controls 源代碼

#!/usr/bin/env python
# vim:fileencoding=utf-8
from __future__ import absolute_import

import random
import re
import sys
import warnings
from io import BytesIO
from mimetypes import guess_type

from . import _request
from .polyglot import (as_unicode, is_py2, iteritems, unicode_type, urlencode,
                       urlparse, urlunparse)

if is_py2:
    from cStringIO import StringIO
else:
    class StringIO(BytesIO):

        def write(self, x):
            if isinstance(x, str):
                x = x.encode('utf-8')
            BytesIO.write(self, x)


class Missing:
    pass


class LocateError(ValueError):
    pass


class AmbiguityError(LocateError):
    pass


class ControlNotFoundError(LocateError):
    pass


class ItemNotFoundError(LocateError):
    pass


class ItemCountError(ValueError):
    pass


_compress_re = re.compile(r"\s+")


def deprecation(message, stack_offset=0):
    warnings.warn(message, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=3 + stack_offset)


def compress_whitespace(text):
    return re.sub(r'\s+', ' ', text or '').strip()


def isstringlike(x):
    if isinstance(x, (bytes, unicode_type)):
        return True
    try:
        x + ""
        return True
    except Exception:
        return False


def choose_boundary():
    """Return a string usable as a multipart boundary."""
    # follow IE and firefox
    nonce = "".join(str(random.randint(0, sys.maxsize - 1)) for i in (0, 1, 2))
    return "-" * 27 + nonce


# This cut-n-pasted MimeWriter from standard library is here so can add
# to HTTP headers rather than message body when appropriate.  It also uses
# \r\n in place of \n.  This is a bit nasty.
class MimeWriter:
    """Generic MIME writer.

    Methods:

    __init__()
    addheader()
    flushheaders()
    startbody()
    startmultipartbody()
    nextpart()
    lastpart()

    A MIME writer is much more primitive than a MIME parser.  It
    doesn't seek around on the output file, and it doesn't use large
    amounts of buffer space, so you have to write the parts in the
    order they should occur on the output file.  It does buffer the
    headers you add, allowing you to rearrange their order.

    General usage is:

    .. code-block:: python

        f = <open the output file>
        w = MimeWriter(f)
        ...call w.addheader(key, value) 0 or more times...

    followed by either:

    .. code-block:: python

        f = w.startbody(content_type)
        ...call f.write(data) for body data...

    or:

    .. code-block:: python

        w.startmultipartbody(subtype)
        for each part:
            subwriter = w.nextpart()
            ...use the subwriter's methods to create the subpart...
        w.lastpart()

    The subwriter is another MimeWriter instance, and should be
    treated in the same way as the toplevel MimeWriter.  This way,
    writing recursive body parts is easy.

    Warning: don't forget to call lastpart()!

    XXX There should be more state so calls made in the wrong order
    are detected.

    Some special cases:

    - startbody() just returns the file passed to the constructor;
      but don't use this knowledge, as it may be changed.

    - startmultipartbody() actually returns a file as well;
      this can be used to write the initial 'if you can read this your
      mailer is not MIME-aware' message.

    - If you call flushheaders(), the headers accumulated so far are
      written out (and forgotten); this is useful if you don't need a
      body part at all, e.g. for a subpart of type message/rfc822
      that's (mis)used to store some header-like information.

    - Passing a keyword argument 'prefix=<flag>' to addheader(),
      start*body() affects where the header is inserted; 0 means
      append at the end, 1 means insert at the start; default is
      append for addheader(), but insert for start*body(), which use
      it to determine where the Content-type header goes.

    """

    def __init__(self, fp, http_hdrs=None):
        self._http_hdrs = http_hdrs
        self._fp = fp
        self._headers = []
        self._boundary = []
        self._first_part = True

    def addheader(self, key, value, prefix=0, add_to_http_hdrs=0):
        """
        prefix is ignored if add_to_http_hdrs is true.
        """
        lines = value.split("\r\n")
        while lines and not lines[-1]:
            del lines[-1]
        while lines and not lines[0]:
            del lines[0]
        if add_to_http_hdrs:
            value = "".join(lines)
            # 2.2 urllib2 doesn't normalize header case
            self._http_hdrs.append((key.capitalize(), value))
        else:
            for i in range(1, len(lines)):
                lines[i] = "    " + lines[i].strip()
            value = "\r\n".join(lines) + "\r\n"
            line = key.title() + ": " + value
            if prefix:
                self._headers.insert(0, line)
            else:
                self._headers.append(line)

    def flushheaders(self):
        for line in self._headers:
            self._fp.write(line)
        self._headers = []

    def startbody(self,
                  ctype=None,
                  plist=[],
                  prefix=1,
                  add_to_http_hdrs=0,
                  content_type=1):
        """
        prefix is ignored if add_to_http_hdrs is true.
        """
        if content_type and ctype:
            for name, value in plist:
                ctype = ctype + ';\r\n %s=%s' % (name, value)
            self.addheader(
                "Content-Type",
                ctype,
                prefix=prefix,
                add_to_http_hdrs=add_to_http_hdrs)
        self.flushheaders()
        if not add_to_http_hdrs:
            self._fp.write("\r\n")
        self._first_part = True
        return self._fp

    def startmultipartbody(self,
                           subtype,
                           boundary=None,
                           plist=[],
                           prefix=1,
                           add_to_http_hdrs=0,
                           content_type=1):
        boundary = boundary or choose_boundary()
        self._boundary.append(boundary)
        return self.startbody(
            "multipart/" + subtype, [("boundary", boundary)] + plist,
            prefix=prefix,
            add_to_http_hdrs=add_to_http_hdrs,
            content_type=content_type)

    def nextpart(self):
        boundary = self._boundary[-1]
        if self._first_part:
            self._first_part = False
        else:
            self._fp.write("\r\n")
        self._fp.write("--" + boundary + "\r\n")
        return self.__class__(self._fp)

    def lastpart(self):
        if self._first_part:
            self.nextpart()
        boundary = self._boundary.pop()
        self._fp.write("\r\n--" + boundary + "--\r\n")


class Label:
    def __init__(self, text, for_id=None):
        self.id = for_id
        self.text = compress_whitespace(text or '')

    def __repr__(self):
        return "<Label(id=%r, text=%r)>" % (self.id, self.text)

    __str__ = __repr__


def _get_label(attrs):
    text = attrs.get("__label")
    if text is not None:
        return Label(text)


[文檔]class Control: """An HTML form control. An HTMLForm contains a sequence of Controls. The Controls in an HTMLForm are accessed using the HTMLForm.find_control method or the HTMLForm.controls attribute. Control instances are usually constructed using the ParseFile / ParseResponse functions. If you use those functions, you can ignore the rest of this paragraph. A Control is only properly initialised after the fixup method has been called. In fact, this is only strictly necessary for ListControl instances. This is necessary because ListControls are built up from ListControls each containing only a single item, and their initial value(s) can only be known after the sequence is complete. The types and values that are acceptable for assignment to the value attribute are defined by subclasses. If the disabled attribute is true, this represents the state typically represented by browsers by 'greying out' a control. If the disabled attribute is true, the Control will raise AttributeError if an attempt is made to change its value. In addition, the control will not be considered 'successful' as defined by the W3C HTML 4 standard -- ie. it will contribute no data to the return value of the HTMLForm.click* methods. To enable a control, set the disabled attribute to a false value. If the readonly attribute is true, the Control will raise AttributeError if an attempt is made to change its value. To make a control writable, set the readonly attribute to a false value. All controls have the disabled and readonly attributes, not only those that may have the HTML attributes of the same names. On assignment to the value attribute, the following exceptions are raised: TypeError, AttributeError (if the value attribute should not be assigned to, because the control is disabled, for example) and ValueError. If the name or value attributes are None, or the value is an empty list, or if the control is disabled, the control is not successful. Public attributes: :ivar str type: string describing type of control (see the keys of the HTMLForm.type2class dictionary for the allowable values) (readonly) :ivar str name: name of control (readonly) :ivar value: current value of control (subclasses may allow a single value, a sequence of values, or either) :ivar bool disabled: disabled state :ivar bool readonly: readonly state :ivar str id: value of id HTML attribute """ def __init__(self, type, name, attrs, index=None): """ type: string describing type of control (see the keys of the HTMLForm.type2class dictionary for the allowable values) name: control name attrs: HTML attributes of control's HTML element """ raise NotImplementedError() def add_to_form(self, form): self._form = form form.controls.append(self) def fixup(self): pass def is_of_kind(self, kind): raise NotImplementedError() def clear(self): raise NotImplementedError() def __getattr__(self, name): raise NotImplementedError() def __setattr__(self, name, value): raise NotImplementedError()
[文檔] def pairs(self): """Return list of (key, value) pairs suitable for passing to urlencode. """ return [(k, v) for (i, k, v) in self._totally_ordered_pairs()]
def _totally_ordered_pairs(self): """Return list of (key, value, index) tuples. Like pairs, but allows preserving correct ordering even where several controls are involved. """ raise NotImplementedError() def _write_mime_data(self, mw, name, value): """Write data for a subitem of this control to a MimeWriter.""" # called by HTMLForm mw2 = mw.nextpart() mw2.addheader( "Content-Disposition", 'form-data; name="%s"' % as_unicode(name), 1) f = mw2.startbody(prefix=0) f.write(value) def __str__(self): raise NotImplementedError()
[文檔] def get_labels(self): """Return all labels (Label instances) for this control. If the control was surrounded by a <label> tag, that will be the first label; all other labels, connected by 'for' and 'id', are in the order that appear in the HTML. """ res = [] if self._label: res.append(self._label) if self.id: res.extend(self._form._id_to_labels.get(self.id, ())) return res
# ---------------------------------------------------
[文檔]class ScalarControl(Control): """Control whose value is not restricted to one of a prescribed set. Some ScalarControls don't accept any value attribute. Otherwise, takes a single value, which must be string-like. Additional read-only public attribute: :ivar dict attrs: dictionary mapping the names of original HTML attributes of the control to their values """ def __init__(self, type, name, attrs, index=None): self._index = index self._label = _get_label(attrs) self.__dict__["type"] = type.lower() self.__dict__["name"] = name self._value = attrs.get("value") self.disabled = 'disabled' in attrs self.readonly = 'readonly' in attrs self.id = attrs.get("id") self.attrs = dict(attrs) self._clicked = False self._urlparse = urlparse self._urlunparse = urlunparse def __getattr__(self, name): if name == "value": return self.__dict__["_value"] else: raise AttributeError("%s instance has no attribute '%s'" % (self.__class__.__name__, name)) def __setattr__(self, name, value): if name == "value": if not isstringlike(value): raise TypeError("must assign a string") elif self.readonly: raise AttributeError("control '%s' is readonly" % self.name) elif self.disabled: raise AttributeError("control '%s' is disabled" % self.name) self.__dict__["_value"] = value elif name in ("name", "type"): raise AttributeError("%s attribute is readonly" % name) else: self.__dict__[name] = value def _totally_ordered_pairs(self): name = self.name value = self.value if name is None or value is None or self.disabled: return [] return [(self._index, name, value)] def clear(self): if self.readonly: raise AttributeError("control '%s' is readonly" % self.name) self.__dict__["_value"] = None def __str__(self): name = self.name value = self.value if name is None: name = "<None>" if value is None: value = "<None>" infos = [] if self.disabled: infos.append("disabled") if self.readonly: infos.append("readonly") info = ", ".join(infos) if info: info = " (%s)" % info return "<%s(%s=%s)%s>" % (self.__class__.__name__, name, value, info)
# ---------------------------------------------------
[文檔]class TextControl(ScalarControl): """Textual input control. Covers HTML elements: INPUT/TEXT, INPUT/PASSWORD, INPUT/HIDDEN, TEXTAREA """ def __init__(self, type, name, attrs, index=None): ScalarControl.__init__(self, type, name, attrs, index) if self.type == "hidden": self.readonly = True if self._value is None: self._value = "" def is_of_kind(self, kind): return kind == "text"
# ---------------------------------------------------
[文檔]class FileControl(ScalarControl): """File upload with INPUT TYPE=FILE. The value attribute of a FileControl is always None. Use add_file instead. Additional public method: :meth:`add_file` """ def __init__(self, type, name, attrs, index=None): ScalarControl.__init__(self, type, name, attrs, index) self._value = None self._upload_data = [] def is_of_kind(self, kind): return kind == "file" def clear(self): if self.readonly: raise AttributeError("control '%s' is readonly" % self.name) self._upload_data = [] def __setattr__(self, name, value): if name in ("value", "name", "type"): raise AttributeError("%s attribute is readonly" % name) else: self.__dict__[name] = value
[文檔] def add_file(self, file_object, content_type=None, filename=None): ''' Add data from the specified file to be uploaded. content_type and filename are sent in the HTTP headers if specified. ''' if not hasattr(file_object, "read"): raise TypeError("file-like object must have read method") if content_type is not None and not isstringlike(content_type): raise TypeError("content type must be None or string-like") if filename is not None and not isstringlike(filename): raise TypeError("filename must be None or string-like") if content_type is None: if getattr(file_object, 'name', None): content_type = guess_type(file_object.name)[0] content_type = content_type or "application/octet-stream" self._upload_data.append((file_object, content_type, filename))
def _totally_ordered_pairs(self): # XXX should it be successful even if unnamed? if self.name is None or self.disabled: return [] return [(self._index, self.name, "")] # If enctype is application/x-www-form-urlencoded and there's a FILE # control present, what should be sent? Strictly, it should be 'name=data' # (see HTML 4.01 spec., section 17.13.2), but code sends "name=" ATM. What # about multiple file upload? def _write_mime_data(self, mw, _name, _value): # called by HTMLForm # assert _name == self.name and _value == '' if len(self._upload_data) < 2: if len(self._upload_data) == 0: file_object = BytesIO() content_type = "application/octet-stream" filename = "" else: file_object, content_type, filename = self._upload_data[0] if filename is None: filename = "" mw2 = mw.nextpart() fn_part = '; filename="%s"' % filename disp = 'form-data; name="%s"%s' % (self.name, fn_part) mw2.addheader("Content-Disposition", disp, prefix=1) fh = mw2.startbody(content_type, prefix=0) fh.write(file_object.read()) else: # multiple files mw2 = mw.nextpart() disp = 'form-data; name="%s"' % self.name mw2.addheader("Content-Disposition", disp, prefix=1) fh = mw2.startmultipartbody("mixed", prefix=0) for file_object, content_type, filename in self._upload_data: mw3 = mw2.nextpart() if filename is None: filename = "" fn_part = '; filename="%s"' % filename disp = "file%s" % fn_part mw3.addheader("Content-Disposition", disp, prefix=1) fh2 = mw3.startbody(content_type, prefix=0) fh2.write(file_object.read()) mw2.lastpart() def __str__(self): name = self.name if name is None: name = "<None>" if not self._upload_data: value = "<No files added>" else: value = [] for file, ctype, filename in self._upload_data: if filename is None: value.append("<Unnamed file>") else: value.append(filename) value = ", ".join(value) info = [] if self.disabled: info.append("disabled") if self.readonly: info.append("readonly") info = ", ".join(info) if info: info = " (%s)" % info return "<%s(%s=%s)%s>" % (self.__class__.__name__, name, value, info)
# --------------------------------------------------- # ---------------------------------------------------
[文檔]class IgnoreControl(ScalarControl): """Control that we're not interested in. Covers html elements: INPUT/RESET, BUTTON/RESET, INPUT/BUTTON, BUTTON/BUTTON These controls are always unsuccessful, in the terminology of HTML 4 (ie. they never require any information to be returned to the server). BUTTON/BUTTON is used to generate events for script embedded in HTML. The value attribute of IgnoreControl is always None. """ def __init__(self, type, name, attrs, index=None): ScalarControl.__init__(self, type, name, attrs, index) self._value = None def is_of_kind(self, kind): return False def __setattr__(self, name, value): if name == "value": raise AttributeError("control '%s' is ignored, hence read-only" % self.name) elif name in ("name", "type"): raise AttributeError("%s attribute is readonly" % name) else: self.__dict__[name] = value
# --------------------------------------------------- # ListControls # helpers and subsidiary classes class Item: def __init__(self, control, attrs, index=None): label = _get_label(attrs) self.__dict__.update({ "name": attrs["value"], "_labels": label and [label] or [], "attrs": attrs, "_control": control, "disabled": 'disabled' in attrs, "_selected": False, "id": attrs.get("id"), "_index": index, }) control.items.append(self) def get_labels(self): """Return all labels (Label instances) for this item. For items that represent radio buttons or checkboxes, if the item was surrounded by a <label> tag, that will be the first label; all other labels, connected by 'for' and 'id', are in the order that appear in the HTML. For items that represent select options, if the option had a label attribute, that will be the first label. If the option has contents (text within the option tags) and it is not the same as the label attribute (if any), that will be a label. There is nothing in the spec to my knowledge that makes an option with an id unable to be the target of a label's for attribute, so those are included, if any, for the sake of consistency and completeness. """ res = [] res.extend(self._labels) if self.id: res.extend(self._control._form._id_to_labels.get(self.id, ())) return res def __getattr__(self, name): if name == "selected": return self._selected raise AttributeError(name) def __setattr__(self, name, value): if name == "selected": self._control._set_selected_state(self, value) elif name == "disabled": self.__dict__["disabled"] = bool(value) else: raise AttributeError(name) def __str__(self): res = self.name if self.selected: res = "*" + res if self.disabled: res = "(%s)" % res return res def __repr__(self): # XXX appending the attrs without distinguishing them from name and id # is silly attrs = [("name", self.name), ("id", self.id)] + list( iteritems(self.attrs)) return "<%s %s>" % (self.__class__.__name__, " ".join(["%s=%r" % (k, v) for k, v in attrs])) def disambiguate(items, nr, **kwds): msgs = [] for key, value in iteritems(kwds): msgs.append("%s=%r" % (key, value)) msg = " ".join(msgs) if not items: raise ItemNotFoundError(msg) if nr is None: if len(items) > 1: raise AmbiguityError(msg) nr = 0 if len(items) <= nr: raise ItemNotFoundError(msg) return items[nr]
[文檔]class ListControl(Control): """Control representing a sequence of items. The value attribute of a ListControl represents the successful list items in the control. The successful list items are those that are selected and not disabled. ListControl implements both list controls that take a length-1 value (single-selection) and those that take length >1 values (multiple-selection). ListControls accept sequence values only. Some controls only accept sequences of length 0 or 1 (RADIO, and single-selection SELECT). In those cases, ItemCountError is raised if len(sequence) > 1. CHECKBOXes and multiple-selection SELECTs (those having the "multiple" HTML attribute) accept sequences of any length. Note the following mistake: .. code-block:: python control.value = some_value assert control.value == some_value # not necessarily true The reason for this is that the value attribute always gives the list items in the order they were listed in the HTML. ListControl items can also be referred to by their labels instead of names. Use the label argument to .get(), and the .set_value_by_label(), .get_value_by_label() methods. Note that, rather confusingly, though SELECT controls are represented in HTML by SELECT elements (which contain OPTION elements, representing individual list items), CHECKBOXes and RADIOs are not represented by *any* element. Instead, those controls are represented by a collection of INPUT elements. For example, this is a SELECT control, named "control1":: <select name="control1"> <option>foo</option> <option value="1">bar</option> </select> and this is a CHECKBOX control, named "control2":: <input type="checkbox" name="control2" value="foo" id="cbe1"> <input type="checkbox" name="control2" value="bar" id="cbe2"> The id attribute of a CHECKBOX or RADIO ListControl is always that of its first element (for example, "cbe1" above). Additional read-only public attribute: multiple. """ # ListControls are built up by the parser from their component items by # creating one ListControl per item, consolidating them into a single # master ListControl held by the HTMLForm: # -User calls form.new_control(...) # -Form creates Control, and calls control.add_to_form(self). # -Control looks for a Control with the same name and type in the form, # and if it finds one, merges itself with that control by calling # control.merge_control(self). The first Control added to the form, of # a particular name and type, is the only one that survives in the # form. # -Form calls control.fixup for all its controls. ListControls in the # form know they can now safely pick their default values. # To create a ListControl without an HTMLForm, use: # control.merge_control(new_control) # (actually, it's much easier just to use ParseFile) _label = None def __init__(self, type, name, attrs={}, select_default=False, called_as_base_class=False, index=None): """ select_default: for RADIO and multiple-selection SELECT controls, pick the first item as the default if no 'selected' HTML attribute is present """ if not called_as_base_class: raise NotImplementedError() self.__dict__["type"] = type.lower() self.__dict__["name"] = name self._value = attrs.get("value") self.disabled = False self.readonly = False self.id = attrs.get("id") self._closed = False # As Controls are merged in with .merge_control(), self.attrs will # refer to each Control in turn -- always the most recently merged # control. Each merged-in Control instance corresponds to a single # list item: see ListControl.__doc__.: self.items = [] self._form = None self._select_default = select_default self._clicked = False def clear(self): self.value = [] def is_of_kind(self, kind): if kind == "list": return True elif kind == "multilist": return bool(self.multiple) elif kind == "singlelist": return not self.multiple else: return False
[文檔] def get_items(self, name=None, label=None, id=None, exclude_disabled=False): """Return matching items by name or label. For argument docs, see the docstring for .get() """ if name is not None and not isstringlike(name): raise TypeError("item name must be string-like") if label is not None and not isstringlike(label): raise TypeError("item label must be string-like") if id is not None and not isstringlike(id): raise TypeError("item id must be string-like") items = [] # order is important for o in self.items: if exclude_disabled and o.disabled: continue if name is not None and o.name != name: continue if label is not None: for l in o.get_labels(): if label in l.text: break else: continue if id is not None and o.id != id: continue items.append(o) return items
[文檔] def get(self, name=None, label=None, id=None, nr=None, exclude_disabled=False): """Return item by name or label, disambiguating if necessary with nr. All arguments must be passed by name, with the exception of 'name', which may be used as a positional argument. If name is specified, then the item must have the indicated name. If label is specified, then the item must have a label whose whitespace-compressed, stripped, text substring-matches the indicated label string (e.g. label="please choose" will match " Do please choose an item "). If id is specified, then the item must have the indicated id. nr is an optional 0-based index of the items matching the query. If nr is the default None value and more than item is found, raises AmbiguityError. If no item is found, or if items are found but nr is specified and not found, raises ItemNotFoundError. Optionally excludes disabled items. """ items = self.get_items(name, label, id, exclude_disabled) return disambiguate(items, nr, name=name, label=label, id=id)
def _get(self, name, by_label=False, nr=None, exclude_disabled=False): # strictly for use by deprecated methods if by_label: name, label = None, name else: name, label = name, None return self.get(name, label, nr, exclude_disabled)
[文檔] def toggle(self, name, by_label=False, nr=None): """Deprecated: given a name or label and optional disambiguating index nr, toggle the matching item's selection. Selecting items follows the behavior described in the docstring of the 'get' method. if the item is disabled, or this control is disabled or readonly, raise AttributeError. """ deprecation( "item = control.get(...); item.selected = not item.selected") o = self._get(name, by_label, nr) self._set_selected_state(o, not o.selected)
[文檔] def set(self, selected, name, by_label=False, nr=None): """Deprecated: given a name or label and optional disambiguating index nr, set the matching item's selection to the bool value of selected. Selecting items follows the behavior described in the docstring of the 'get' method. if the item is disabled, or this control is disabled or readonly, raise AttributeError. """ deprecation("control.get(...).selected = <boolean>") self._set_selected_state(self._get(name, by_label, nr), selected)
def _set_selected_state(self, item, action): # action: # bool False: off # bool True: on if self.disabled: raise AttributeError("control '%s' is disabled" % self.name) if self.readonly: raise AttributeError("control '%s' is readonly" % self.name) action == bool(action) if item.disabled: raise AttributeError("item is disabled") if self.multiple: item.__dict__["_selected"] = action else: if not action: item.__dict__["_selected"] = False else: for o in self.items: o.__dict__["_selected"] = False item.__dict__["_selected"] = True
[文檔] def toggle_single(self, by_label=None): """Deprecated: toggle the selection of the single item in this control. Raises ItemCountError if the control does not contain only one item. by_label argument is ignored, and included only for backwards compatibility. """ deprecation( "control.items[0].selected = not control.items[0].selected") if len(self.items) != 1: raise ItemCountError("'%s' is not a single-item control" % self.name) item = self.items[0] self._set_selected_state(item, not item.selected)
[文檔] def set_single(self, selected, by_label=None): """Deprecated: set the selection of the single item in this control. Raises ItemCountError if the control does not contain only one item. by_label argument is ignored, and included only for backwards compatibility. """ deprecation("control.items[0].selected = <boolean>") if len(self.items) != 1: raise ItemCountError("'%s' is not a single-item control" % self.name) self._set_selected_state(self.items[0], selected)
[文檔] def get_item_disabled(self, name, by_label=False, nr=None): """Get disabled state of named list item in a ListControl.""" deprecation("control.get(...).disabled") return self._get(name, by_label, nr).disabled
[文檔] def set_item_disabled(self, disabled, name, by_label=False, nr=None): """Set disabled state of named list item in a ListControl. :arg disabled: boolean disabled state """ deprecation("control.get(...).disabled = <boolean>") self._get(name, by_label, nr).disabled = disabled
[文檔] def set_all_items_disabled(self, disabled): """Set disabled state of all list items in a ListControl. :arg disabled: boolean disabled state """ for o in self.items: o.disabled = disabled
[文檔] def get_item_attrs(self, name, by_label=False, nr=None): """Return dictionary of HTML attributes for a single ListControl item. The HTML element types that describe list items are: OPTION for SELECT controls, INPUT for the rest. These elements have HTML attributes that you may occasionally want to know about -- for example, the "alt" HTML attribute gives a text string describing the item (graphical browsers usually display this as a tooltip). The returned dictionary maps HTML attribute names to values. The names and values are taken from the original HTML. """ deprecation("control.get(...).attrs") return self._get(name, by_label, nr).attrs
def close_control(self): self._closed = True def add_to_form(self, form): assert self._form is None or form == self._form, ( "can't add control to more than one form") self._form = form if self.name is None: # always count nameless elements as separate controls Control.add_to_form(self, form) else: for ii in range(len(form.controls) - 1, -1, -1): control = form.controls[ii] if control.name == self.name and control.type == self.type: if control._closed: Control.add_to_form(self, form) else: control.merge_control(self) break else: Control.add_to_form(self, form) def merge_control(self, control): assert bool(control.multiple) == bool(self.multiple) # usually, isinstance(control, self.__class__) self.items.extend(control.items)
[文檔] def fixup(self): """ ListControls are built up from component list items (which are also ListControls) during parsing. This method should be called after all items have been added. See :class:`mechanize.ListControl` for the reason this is required. """ # Need to set default selection where no item was indicated as being # selected by the HTML: # CHECKBOX: # Nothing should be selected. # SELECT/single, SELECT/multiple and RADIO: # RFC 1866 (HTML 2.0): says first item should be selected. # W3C HTML 4.01 Specification: says that client behaviour is # undefined in this case. For RADIO, exactly one must be selected, # though which one is undefined. # Both Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) choose first # item for SELECT/single. However, both IE5 and Mozilla (both 1.0 # and Firebird 0.6) leave all items unselected for RADIO and # SELECT/multiple. # Since both Netscape and IE all choose the first item for # SELECT/single, we do the same. OTOH, both Netscape and IE # leave SELECT/multiple with nothing selected, in violation of RFC 1866 # (but not in violation of the W3C HTML 4 standard); the same is true # of RADIO (which *is* in violation of the HTML 4 standard). We follow # RFC 1866 if the _select_default attribute is set, and Netscape and IE # otherwise. RFC 1866 and HTML 4 are always violated insofar as you # can deselect all items in a RadioControl. for o in self.items: # set items' controls to self, now that we've merged o.__dict__["_control"] = self
def __getattr__(self, name): if name == "value": if self.name is None: return [] return [ o.name for o in self.items if o.selected and (not o.disabled) ] else: raise AttributeError("%s instance has no attribute '%s'" % (self.__class__.__name__, name)) def __setattr__(self, name, value): if name == "value": if self.disabled: raise AttributeError("control '%s' is disabled" % self.name) if self.readonly: raise AttributeError("control '%s' is readonly" % self.name) self._set_value(value) elif name in ("name", "type", "multiple"): raise AttributeError("%s attribute is readonly" % name) else: self.__dict__[name] = value def _set_value(self, value): if value is None or isstringlike(value): raise TypeError("ListControl, must set a sequence") if not value: for o in self.items: if not o.disabled: o.selected = False elif self.multiple: self._multiple_set_value(value) elif len(value) > 1: raise ItemCountError("single selection list, must set sequence of " "length 0 or 1") else: self._single_set_value(value) def _get_items(self, name, target=1): all_items = self.get_items(name) items = [o for o in all_items if not o.disabled] if len(items) < target: if len(all_items) < target: raise ItemNotFoundError("insufficient items with name %r" % name) else: raise AttributeError( "insufficient non-disabled items with name %s" % name) on = [] off = [] for o in items: if o.selected: on.append(o) else: off.append(o) return on, off def _single_set_value(self, value): assert len(value) == 1 on, off = self._get_items(value[0]) assert len(on) <= 1 if not on: off[0].selected = True def _multiple_set_value(self, value): turn_on = [] # transactional-ish turn_off = [ item for item in self.items if item.selected and (not item.disabled) ] names = {} for nn in value: names[nn] = names.setdefault(nn, 0) + 1 for name, count in iteritems(names): on, off = self._get_items(name, count) for i in range(count): if on: item = on[0] del on[0] del turn_off[turn_off.index(item)] else: item = off[0] del off[0] turn_on.append(item) for item in turn_off: item.selected = False for item in turn_on: item.selected = True
[文檔] def set_value_by_label(self, value): """Set the value of control by item labels. value is expected to be an iterable of strings that are substrings of the item labels that should be selected. Before substring matching is performed, the original label text is whitespace-compressed (consecutive whitespace characters are converted to a single space character) and leading and trailing whitespace is stripped. Ambiguous labels: it will not complain as long as all ambiguous labels share the same item name (e.g. OPTION value). """ if isstringlike(value): raise TypeError(value) if not self.multiple and len(value) > 1: raise ItemCountError("single selection list, must set sequence of " "length 0 or 1") items = [] for nn in value: found = self.get_items(label=nn) if len(found) > 1: # ambiguous labels are fine as long as item names (e.g. # OPTION values) are same opt_name = found[0].name if [o for o in found[1:] if o.name != opt_name]: raise AmbiguityError(nn) for o in found: # For the multiple-item case, we could try to be smarter, # saving them up and trying to resolve, but that's too much. if o not in items: items.append(o) break else: # all of them are used raise ItemNotFoundError(nn) # now we have all the items that should be on # let's just turn everything off and then back on. self.value = [] for o in items: o.selected = True
[文檔] def get_value_by_label(self): """Return the value of the control as given by normalized labels.""" res = [] for o in self.items: if (not o.disabled) and o.selected: for l in o.get_labels(): if l.text: res.append(l.text) break else: res.append(None) return res
[文檔] def possible_items(self, by_label=False): """Deprecated: return the names or labels of all possible items. Includes disabled items, which may be misleading for some use cases. """ deprecation("[item.name for item in self.items]") if by_label: res = [] for o in self.items: for l in o.get_labels(): if l.text: res.append(l.text) break else: res.append(None) return res return [o.name for o in self.items]
def _totally_ordered_pairs(self): if self.disabled or self.name is None: return [] else: return [(o._index, self.name, o.name) for o in self.items if o.selected and not o.disabled] def __str__(self): name = self.name if name is None: name = "<None>" display = [str(o) for o in self.items] infos = [] if self.disabled: infos.append("disabled") if self.readonly: infos.append("readonly") info = ", ".join(infos) if info: info = " (%s)" % info return "<%s(%s=[%s])%s>" % (self.__class__.__name__, name, ", ".join(display), info)
[文檔]class RadioControl(ListControl): """ Covers: INPUT/RADIO """ def __init__(self, type, name, attrs, select_default=False, index=None): attrs.setdefault("value", "on") ListControl.__init__( self, type, name, attrs, select_default, called_as_base_class=True, index=index) self.__dict__["multiple"] = False o = Item(self, attrs, index) o.__dict__["_selected"] = 'checked' in attrs
[文檔] def fixup(self): ListControl.fixup(self) found = [o for o in self.items if o.selected and not o.disabled] if not found: if self._select_default: for o in self.items: if not o.disabled: o.selected = True break else: # Ensure only one item selected. Choose the last one, # following IE and Firefox. for o in found[:-1]: o.selected = False
[文檔] def get_labels(self): return []
[文檔]class CheckboxControl(ListControl): """ Covers: INPUT/CHECKBOX """ def __init__(self, type, name, attrs, select_default=False, index=None): attrs.setdefault("value", "on") ListControl.__init__( self, type, name, attrs, select_default, called_as_base_class=True, index=index) self.__dict__["multiple"] = True o = Item(self, attrs, index) o.__dict__["_selected"] = 'checked' in attrs
[文檔] def get_labels(self): return []
[文檔]class SelectControl(ListControl): """ Covers: SELECT (and OPTION) OPTION 'values', in HTML parlance, are Item 'names' in mechanize parlance. SELECT control values and labels are subject to some messy defaulting rules. For example, if the HTML representation of the control is:: <SELECT name=year> <OPTION value=0 label="2002">current year</OPTION> <OPTION value=1>2001</OPTION> <OPTION>2000</OPTION> </SELECT> The items, in order, have labels "2002", "2001" and "2000", whereas their names (the OPTION values) are "0", "1" and "2000" respectively. Note that the value of the last OPTION in this example defaults to its contents, as specified by RFC 1866, as do the labels of the second and third OPTIONs. The OPTION labels are sometimes more meaningful than the OPTION values, which can make for more maintainable code. Additional read-only public attribute: attrs The attrs attribute is a dictionary of the original HTML attributes of the SELECT element. Other ListControls do not have this attribute, because in other cases the control as a whole does not correspond to any single HTML element. control.get(...).attrs may be used as usual to get at the HTML attributes of the HTML elements corresponding to individual list items (for SELECT controls, these are OPTION elements). Another special case is that the Item.attrs dictionaries have a special key "contents" which does not correspond to any real HTML attribute, but rather contains the contents of the OPTION element:: <OPTION>this bit</OPTION> """ # HTML attributes here are treated slightly differently from other list # controls: # -The SELECT HTML attributes dictionary is stuffed into the OPTION # HTML attributes dictionary under the "__select" key. # -The content of each OPTION element is stored under the special # "contents" key of the dictionary. # After all this, the dictionary is passed to the SelectControl constructor # as the attrs argument, as usual. However: # -The first SelectControl constructed when building up a SELECT control # has a constructor attrs argument containing only the __select key -- so # this SelectControl represents an empty SELECT control. # -Subsequent SelectControls have both OPTION HTML-attribute in attrs and # the __select dictionary containing the SELECT HTML-attributes. def __init__(self, type, name, attrs, select_default=False, index=None): # fish out the SELECT HTML attributes from the OPTION HTML attributes # dictionary self.attrs = dict(attrs["__select"]) self.__dict__["_label"] = _get_label(self.attrs) self.__dict__["id"] = self.attrs.get("id") self.__dict__["multiple"] = 'multiple' in self.attrs # the majority of the contents, label, and value dance already happened contents = attrs.get("contents") attrs = dict(attrs) del attrs["__select"] ListControl.__init__( self, type, name, self.attrs, select_default, called_as_base_class=True, index=index) self.disabled = 'disabled' in self.attrs self.readonly = 'readonly' in self.attrs if 'value' in attrs: # otherwise it is a marker 'select started' token o = Item(self, attrs, index) o.__dict__["_selected"] = 'selected' in attrs # add 'label' label and contents label, if different. If both are # provided, the 'label' label is used for display in HTML # 4.0-compliant browsers (and any lower spec? not sure) while the # contents are used for display in older or less-compliant # browsers. We make label objects for both, if the values are # different. label = attrs.get("label") if label: o._labels.append(Label(label)) if contents and contents != label: o._labels.append(Label(contents)) elif contents: o._labels.append(Label(contents))
[文檔] def fixup(self): ListControl.fixup(self) # Firefox doesn't exclude disabled items from those considered here # (i.e. from 'found', for both branches of the if below). Note that # IE6 doesn't support the disabled attribute on OPTIONs at all. found = [o for o in self.items if o.selected] if not found: if not self.multiple or self._select_default: for o in self.items: if not o.disabled: was_disabled = self.disabled self.disabled = False try: o.selected = True finally: o.disabled = was_disabled break elif not self.multiple: # Ensure only one item selected. Choose the last one, # following IE and Firefox. for o in found[:-1]: o.selected = False
# ---------------------------------------------------
[文檔]class SubmitControl(ScalarControl): """ Covers: INPUT/SUBMIT BUTTON/SUBMIT """ def __init__(self, type, name, attrs, index=None): ScalarControl.__init__(self, type, name, attrs, index) # IE5 defaults SUBMIT value to "Submit Query"; Firebird 0.6 leaves it # blank, Konqueror 3.1 defaults to "Submit". HTML spec. doesn't seem # to define this. if self.value is None: self.__dict__['_value'] = "" self.readonly = True def get_labels(self): res = [] if self.value: res.append(Label(self.value)) res.extend(ScalarControl.get_labels(self)) return res def is_of_kind(self, kind): return kind == "clickable" def _click(self, form, coord, return_type, request_class=_request.Request): self._clicked = coord r = form._switch_click(return_type, request_class) self._clicked = False return r def _totally_ordered_pairs(self): if not self._clicked: return [] return ScalarControl._totally_ordered_pairs(self)
# ---------------------------------------------------
[文檔]class ImageControl(SubmitControl): """ Covers: INPUT/IMAGE Coordinates are specified using one of the HTMLForm.click* methods. """ def __init__(self, type, name, attrs, index=None): SubmitControl.__init__(self, type, name, attrs, index) self.readonly = False def _totally_ordered_pairs(self): clicked = self._clicked if self.disabled or not clicked: return [] name = self.name if name is None: return [] pairs = [ (self._index, "%s.x" % name, str(clicked[0])), (self._index + 1, "%s.y" % name, str(clicked[1])), ] value = self._value if value: pairs.append((self._index + 2, name, value)) return pairs get_labels = ScalarControl.get_labels
# aliases, just to make str(control) and str(form) clearer class PasswordControl(TextControl): pass class HiddenControl(TextControl): pass class TextareaControl(TextControl): pass class SubmitButtonControl(SubmitControl): pass def is_listcontrol(control): return control.is_of_kind("list")
[文檔]class HTMLForm: """ Represents a single HTML <form> ... </form> element. A form consists of a sequence of controls that usually have names, and which can take on various values. The values of the various types of controls represent variously: text, zero-or-one-of-many or many-of-many choices, and files to be uploaded. Some controls can be clicked on to submit the form, and clickable controls' values sometimes include the coordinates of the click. Forms can be filled in with data to be returned to the server, and then submitted, using the click method to generate a request object suitable for passing to :func:`mechanize.urlopen` (or the click_request_data or click_pairs methods for integration with third-party code). Usually, HTMLForm instances are not created directly. Instead, they are automatically created when visting a page with a mechanize Browser. If you do construct HTMLForm objects yourself, however, note that an HTMLForm instance is only properly initialised after the fixup method has been called. See :class:`mechanize.ListControl` for the reason this is required. Indexing a form (form["control_name"]) returns the named Control's value attribute. Assignment to a form index (form["control_name"] = something) is equivalent to assignment to the named Control's value attribute. If you need to be more specific than just supplying the control's name, use the set_value and get_value methods. ListControl values are lists of item names (specifically, the names of the items that are selected and not disabled, and hence are "successful" -- ie. cause data to be returned to the server). The list item's name is the value of the corresponding HTML element's"value" attribute. Example:: <INPUT type="CHECKBOX" name="cheeses" value="leicester"></INPUT> <INPUT type="CHECKBOX" name="cheeses" value="cheddar"></INPUT> defines a CHECKBOX control with name "cheeses" which has two items, named "leicester" and "cheddar". Another example:: <SELECT name="more_cheeses"> <OPTION>1</OPTION> <OPTION value="2" label="CHEDDAR">cheddar</OPTION> </SELECT> defines a SELECT control with name "more_cheeses" which has two items, named "1" and "2" (because the OPTION element's value HTML attribute defaults to the element contents -- see :class:`mechanize.SelectControl` for more on these defaulting rules). To select, deselect or otherwise manipulate individual list items, use the :meth:`mechanize.HTMLForm.find_control()` and :meth:`mechanize.ListControl.get()` methods. To set the whole value, do as for any other control: use indexing or the `set_value/get_value` methods. Example: .. code-block:: python # select *only* the item named "cheddar" form["cheeses"] = ["cheddar"] # select "cheddar", leave other items unaffected form.find_control("cheeses").get("cheddar").selected = True Some controls (RADIO and SELECT without the multiple attribute) can only have zero or one items selected at a time. Some controls (CHECKBOX and SELECT with the multiple attribute) can have multiple items selected at a time. To set the whole value of a ListControl, assign a sequence to a form index: .. code-block:: python form["cheeses"] = ["cheddar", "leicester"] If the ListControl is not multiple-selection, the assigned list must be of length one. To check if a control has an item, if an item is selected, or if an item is successful (selected and not disabled), respectively: .. code-block:: python "cheddar" in [item.name for item in form.find_control("cheeses").items] "cheddar" in [item.name for item in form.find_control("cheeses").items and item.selected] "cheddar" in form["cheeses"] # or "cheddar" in form.get_value("cheeses") Note that some list items may be disabled (see below). Note the following mistake: .. code-block:: python form[control_name] = control_value assert form[control_name] == control_value # not necessarily true The reason for this is that form[control_name] always gives the list items in the order they were listed in the HTML. List items (hence list values, too) can be referred to in terms of list item labels rather than list item names using the appropriate label arguments. Note that each item may have several labels. The question of default values of OPTION contents, labels and values is somewhat complicated: see :class:`mechanize.SelectControl` and :meth:`mechanize.ListControl.get_item_attrs()` if you think you need to know. Controls can be disabled or readonly. In either case, the control's value cannot be changed until you clear those flags (see example below). Disabled is the state typically represented by browsers by 'greying out' a control. Disabled controls are not 'successful' -- they don't cause data to get returned to the server. Readonly controls usually appear in browsers as read-only text boxes. Readonly controls are successful. List items can also be disabled. Attempts to select or deselect disabled items fail with AttributeError. If a lot of controls are readonly, it can be useful to do this: .. code-block:: python form.set_all_readonly(False) To clear a control's value attribute, so that it is not successful (until a value is subsequently set): .. code-block:: python form.clear("cheeses") More examples: .. code-block:: python control = form.find_control("cheeses") control.disabled = False control.readonly = False control.get("gruyere").disabled = True control.items[0].selected = True See the various Control classes for further documentation. Many methods take name, type, kind, id, label and nr arguments to specify the control to be operated on: see :meth:`mechanize.HTMLForm.find_control()`. ControlNotFoundError (subclass of ValueError) is raised if the specified control can't be found. This includes occasions where a non-ListControl is found, but the method (set, for example) requires a ListControl. ItemNotFoundError (subclass of ValueError) is raised if a list item can't be found. ItemCountError (subclass of ValueError) is raised if an attempt is made to select more than one item and the control doesn't allow that, or set/get_single are called and the control contains more than one item. AttributeError is raised if a control or item is readonly or disabled and an attempt is made to alter its value. Security note: Remember that any passwords you store in HTMLForm instances will be saved to disk in the clear if you pickle them (directly or indirectly). The simplest solution to this is to avoid pickling HTMLForm objects. You could also pickle before filling in any password, or just set the password to "" before pickling. Public attributes: :ivar action: full (absolute URI) form action :ivar method: "GET" or "POST" :ivar enctype: form transfer encoding MIME type :ivar name: name of form (None if no name was specified) :ivar attrs: dictionary mapping original HTML form attributes to their values :ivar controls: list of Control instances; do not alter this list (instead, call form.new_control to make a Control and add it to the form, or control.add_to_form if you already have a Control instance) Methods for form filling: Most of the these methods have very similar arguments. See :meth:`mechanize.HTMLForm.find_control()` for details of the name, type, kind, label and nr arguments. .. code-block:: python def find_control(self, name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, predicate=None, nr=None, label=None) get_value(name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, by_label=False, # by_label is deprecated label=None) set_value(value, name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, by_label=False, # by_label is deprecated label=None) clear_all() clear(name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, label=None) set_all_readonly(readonly) Method applying only to FileControls: .. code-block:: python add_file(file_object, content_type="application/octet-stream", filename=None, name=None, id=None, nr=None, label=None) Methods applying only to clickable controls: .. code-block:: python click(name=None, type=None, id=None, nr=0, coord=(1,1), label=None) click_request_data(name=None, type=None, id=None, nr=0, coord=(1,1), label=None) click_pairs(name=None, type=None, id=None, nr=0, coord=(1,1), label=None) """ type2class = { "text": TextControl, "password": PasswordControl, "hidden": HiddenControl, "textarea": TextareaControl, "file": FileControl, "button": IgnoreControl, "buttonbutton": IgnoreControl, "reset": IgnoreControl, "resetbutton": IgnoreControl, "submit": SubmitControl, "submitbutton": SubmitButtonControl, "image": ImageControl, "radio": RadioControl, "checkbox": CheckboxControl, "select": SelectControl, } # --------------------------------------------------- # Initialisation. Use ParseResponse / ParseFile instead. def __init__(self, action, method="GET", enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded", name=None, attrs=None, request_class=_request.Request, forms=None, labels=None, id_to_labels=None, encoding=None): """ In the usual case, use ParseResponse (or ParseFile) to create new HTMLForm objects. action: full (absolute URI) form action method: "GET" or "POST" enctype: form transfer encoding MIME type name: name of form attrs: dictionary mapping original HTML form attributes to their values """ self.action = action self.method = method self.enctype = enctype self.form_encoding = encoding or 'utf-8' self.name = name if attrs is not None: self.attrs = dict(attrs) else: self.attrs = {} self.controls = [] self._request_class = request_class # these attributes are used by zope.testbrowser self._forms = forms # this is a semi-public API! self._labels = labels # this is a semi-public API! self._id_to_labels = id_to_labels # this is a semi-public API! self._urlunparse = urlunparse self._urlparse = urlparse
[文檔] def new_control(self, type, name, attrs, ignore_unknown=False, select_default=False, index=None): """Adds a new control to the form. This is usually called by mechanize. Don't call it yourself unless you're building your own Control instances. Note that controls representing lists of items are built up from controls holding only a single list item. See :class:`mechanize.ListControl` for further information. :arg type: type of control (see :class:`mechanize.Control` for a list) :arg attrs: HTML attributes of control :arg ignore_unknown: if true, use a dummy Control instance for controls of unknown type; otherwise, use a TextControl :arg select_default: for RADIO and multiple-selection SELECT controls, pick the first item as the default if no 'selected' HTML attribute is present (this defaulting happens when the HTMLForm.fixup method is called) :arg index: index of corresponding element in HTML (see MoreFormTests.test_interspersed_controls for motivation) """ type = type.lower() klass = self.type2class.get(type) if klass is None: if ignore_unknown: klass = IgnoreControl else: klass = TextControl a = dict(attrs) if issubclass(klass, ListControl): control = klass(type, name, a, select_default, index) else: control = klass(type, name, a, index) if type == "select" and len(attrs) == 1: for ii in range(len(self.controls) - 1, -1, -1): ctl = self.controls[ii] if ctl.type == "select": ctl.close_control() break control.add_to_form(self) control._urlparse = self._urlparse control._urlunparse = self._urlunparse
[文檔] def fixup(self): """Normalise form after all controls have been added. This is usually called by ParseFile and ParseResponse. Don't call it youself unless you're building your own Control instances. This method should only be called once, after all controls have been added to the form. """ for control in self.controls: control.fixup() control.form_encoding = self.form_encoding
# --------------------------------------------------- def __str__(self): header = "%s%s %s %s" % ((self.name and self.name + " " or ""), self.method, self.action, self.enctype) rep = [header] for control in self.controls: rep.append(" %s" % str(control)) return "<%s>" % "\n".join(rep) # --------------------------------------------------- # Form-filling methods. def __getitem__(self, name): return self.find_control(name).value def __contains__(self, name): return bool(self.find_control(name)) def __setitem__(self, name, value): control = self.find_control(name) try: control.value = value except AttributeError as e: raise ValueError(str(e))
[文檔] def get_value( self, name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, by_label=False, # by_label is deprecated label=None): """Return value of control. If only name and value arguments are supplied, equivalent to .. code-block:: python form[name] """ if by_label: deprecation("form.get_value_by_label(...)") c = self.find_control(name, type, kind, id, label=label, nr=nr) if by_label: try: meth = c.get_value_by_label except AttributeError: raise NotImplementedError( "control '%s' does not yet support by_label" % c.name) else: return meth() else: return c.value
[文檔] def set_value( self, value, name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, by_label=False, # by_label is deprecated label=None): """Set value of control. If only name and value arguments are supplied, equivalent to .. code-block:: python form[name] = value """ if by_label: deprecation("form.get_value_by_label(...)") c = self.find_control(name, type, kind, id, label=label, nr=nr) if by_label: try: meth = c.set_value_by_label except AttributeError: raise NotImplementedError( "control '%s' does not yet support by_label" % c.name) else: meth(value) else: c.value = value
[文檔] def get_value_by_label(self, name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, label=None, nr=None): """ All arguments should be passed by name. """ c = self.find_control(name, type, kind, id, label=label, nr=nr) return c.get_value_by_label()
[文檔] def set_value_by_label(self, value, name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, label=None, nr=None): """ All arguments should be passed by name. """ c = self.find_control(name, type, kind, id, label=label, nr=nr) c.set_value_by_label(value)
def set_all_readonly(self, readonly): for control in self.controls: control.readonly = bool(readonly)
[文檔] def clear_all(self): """Clear the value attributes of all controls in the form. See :meth:`mechanize.HTMLForm.clear()` """ for control in self.controls: control.clear()
[文檔] def clear(self, name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, label=None): """Clear the value attribute of a control. As a result, the affected control will not be successful until a value is subsequently set. AttributeError is raised on readonly controls. """ c = self.find_control(name, type, kind, id, label=label, nr=nr) c.clear()
# --------------------------------------------------- # Form-filling methods applying only to ListControls.
[文檔] def possible_items( self, # deprecated name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, by_label=False, label=None): """Return a list of all values that the specified control can take.""" c = self._find_list_control(name, type, kind, id, label, nr) return c.possible_items(by_label)
[文檔] def set( self, selected, item_name, # deprecated name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, by_label=False, label=None): """Select / deselect named list item. :arg selected: boolean selected state """ self._find_list_control(name, type, kind, id, label, nr).set( selected, item_name, by_label)
[文檔] def toggle( self, item_name, # deprecated name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, by_label=False, label=None): """Toggle selected state of named list item.""" self._find_list_control(name, type, kind, id, label, nr).toggle( item_name, by_label)
[文檔] def set_single( self, selected, # deprecated name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, by_label=None, label=None): """Select / deselect list item in a control having only one item. If the control has multiple list items, ItemCountError is raised. This is just a convenience method, so you don't need to know the item's name -- the item name in these single-item controls is usually something meaningless like "1" or "on". For example, if a checkbox has a single item named "on", the following two calls are equivalent: .. code-block:: python control.toggle("on") control.toggle_single() """ # by_label ignored and deprecated self._find_list_control(name, type, kind, id, label, nr).set_single(selected)
[文檔] def toggle_single(self, name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, nr=None, by_label=None, label=None): # deprecated """Toggle selected state of list item in control having only one item. The rest is as for :meth:`mechanize.HTMLForm.set_single()` """ # by_label ignored and deprecated self._find_list_control(name, type, kind, id, label, nr).toggle_single()
# --------------------------------------------------- # Form-filling method applying only to FileControls.
[文檔] def add_file(self, file_object, content_type=None, filename=None, name=None, id=None, nr=None, label=None): """Add a file to be uploaded. :arg file_object: file-like object (with read method) from which to read data to upload :arg content_type: MIME content type of data to upload :arg filename: filename to pass to server If filename is None, no filename is sent to the server. If content_type is None, the content type is guessed based on the filename and the data from read from the file object. At the moment, guessed content type is always application/octet-stream. Note the following useful HTML attributes of file upload controls (see HTML 4.01 spec, section 17): * `accept`: comma-separated list of content types that the server will handle correctly; you can use this to filter out non-conforming files * `size`: XXX IIRC, this is indicative of whether form wants multiple or single files * `maxlength`: XXX hint of max content length in bytes? """ self.find_control( name, "file", id=id, label=label, nr=nr).add_file(file_object, content_type, filename)
# --------------------------------------------------- # Form submission methods, applying only to clickable controls.
[文檔] def click(self, name=None, type=None, id=None, nr=0, coord=(1, 1), request_class=_request.Request, label=None): """Return request that would result from clicking on a control. The request object is a mechanize.Request instance, which you can pass to mechanize.urlopen. Only some control types (INPUT/SUBMIT & BUTTON/SUBMIT buttons and IMAGEs) can be clicked. Will click on the first clickable control, subject to the name, type and nr arguments (as for find_control). If no name, type, id or number is specified and there are no clickable controls, a request will be returned for the form in its current, un-clicked, state. IndexError is raised if any of name, type, id or nr is specified but no matching control is found. ValueError is raised if the HTMLForm has an enctype attribute that is not recognised. You can optionally specify a coordinate to click at, which only makes a difference if you clicked on an image. """ return self._click(name, type, id, label, nr, coord, "request", self._request_class)
[文檔] def click_request_data(self, name=None, type=None, id=None, nr=0, coord=(1, 1), request_class=_request.Request, label=None): """As for click method, but return a tuple (url, data, headers). You can use this data to send a request to the server. This is useful if you're using httplib or urllib rather than mechanize. Otherwise, use the click method. """ return self._click(name, type, id, label, nr, coord, "request_data", self._request_class)
[文檔] def click_pairs(self, name=None, type=None, id=None, nr=0, coord=(1, 1), label=None): """As for click_request_data, but returns a list of (key, value) pairs. You can use this list as an argument to urllib.urlencode. This is usually only useful if you're using httplib or urllib rather than mechanize. It may also be useful if you want to manually tweak the keys and/or values, but this should not be necessary. Otherwise, use the click method. Note that this method is only useful for forms of MIME type x-www-form-urlencoded. In particular, it does not return the information required for file upload. If you need file upload and are not using mechanize, use click_request_data. """ return self._click(name, type, id, label, nr, coord, "pairs", self._request_class)
# ---------------------------------------------------
[文檔] def find_control(self, name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, predicate=None, nr=None, label=None): """Locate and return some specific control within the form. At least one of the name, type, kind, predicate and nr arguments must be supplied. If no matching control is found, ControlNotFoundError is raised. If name is specified, then the control must have the indicated name. If type is specified then the control must have the specified type (in addition to the types possible for <input> HTML tags: "text", "password", "hidden", "submit", "image", "button", "radio", "checkbox", "file" we also have "reset", "buttonbutton", "submitbutton", "resetbutton", "textarea", "select"). If kind is specified, then the control must fall into the specified group, each of which satisfies a particular interface. The types are "text", "list", "multilist", "singlelist", "clickable" and "file". If id is specified, then the control must have the indicated id. If predicate is specified, then the control must match that function. The predicate function is passed the control as its single argument, and should return a boolean value indicating whether the control matched. nr, if supplied, is the sequence number of the control (where 0 is the first). Note that control 0 is the first control matching all the other arguments (if supplied); it is not necessarily the first control in the form. If no nr is supplied, AmbiguityError is raised if multiple controls match the other arguments. If label is specified, then the control must have this label. Note that radio controls and checkboxes never have labels: their items do. """ if ((name is None) and (type is None) and (kind is None) and (id is None) and (label is None) and (predicate is None) and (nr is None)): raise ValueError( "at least one argument must be supplied to specify control") return self._find_control(name, type, kind, id, label, predicate, nr)
# --------------------------------------------------- # Private methods. def _find_list_control(self, name=None, type=None, kind=None, id=None, label=None, nr=None): if ((name is None) and (type is None) and (kind is None) and (id is None) and (label is None) and (nr is None)): raise ValueError( "at least one argument must be supplied to specify control") return self._find_control(name, type, kind, id, label, is_listcontrol, nr) def _find_control(self, name, type, kind, id, label, predicate, nr): if ((name is not None) and (name is not Missing) and not isstringlike(name)): raise TypeError("control name must be string-like") if (type is not None) and not isstringlike(type): raise TypeError("control type must be string-like") if (kind is not None) and not isstringlike(kind): raise TypeError("control kind must be string-like") if (id is not None) and not isstringlike(id): raise TypeError("control id must be string-like") if (label is not None) and not isstringlike(label): raise TypeError("control label must be string-like") if (predicate is not None) and not callable(predicate): raise TypeError("control predicate must be callable") if (nr is not None) and nr < 0: raise ValueError("control number must be a positive integer") orig_nr = nr found = None ambiguous = False for control in self.controls: if ((name is not None and name != control.name) and (name is not Missing or control.name is not None)): continue if type is not None and type != control.type: continue if kind is not None and not control.is_of_kind(kind): continue if id is not None and id != control.id: continue if predicate and not predicate(control): continue if label: for l in control.get_labels(): if l.text.find(label) > -1: break else: continue if nr is not None: if nr == 0: return control # early exit: unambiguous due to nr nr -= 1 continue if found: ambiguous = True break found = control if found and not ambiguous: return found description = [] if name is not None: description.append("name %s" % repr(name)) if type is not None: description.append("type '%s'" % type) if kind is not None: description.append("kind '%s'" % kind) if id is not None: description.append("id '%s'" % id) if label is not None: description.append("label '%s'" % label) if predicate is not None: description.append("predicate %s" % predicate) if orig_nr: description.append("nr %d" % orig_nr) description = ", ".join(description) if ambiguous: raise AmbiguityError("more than one control matching " + description) elif not found: raise ControlNotFoundError("no control matching " + description) assert False def _click(self, name, type, id, label, nr, coord, return_type, request_class=_request.Request): try: control = self._find_control(name, type, "clickable", id, label, None, nr) except ControlNotFoundError: if ((name is not None) or (type is not None) or (id is not None) or (label is not None) or (nr != 0)): raise # no clickable controls, but no control was explicitly requested, # so return state without clicking any control return self._switch_click(return_type, request_class) else: originals = self.method, self.action, self.enctype try: if isinstance(control, ScalarControl): self.method = control.attrs.get( 'formmethod') or self.method self.action = control.attrs.get( 'formaction') or self.action self.enctype = control.attrs.get( 'formenctype') or self.enctype return control._click(self, coord, return_type, request_class) finally: self.method, self.action, self.enctype = originals def _pairs(self): """Return sequence of (key, value) pairs suitable for urlencoding.""" return [(k, v) for (i, k, v, c_i) in self._pairs_and_controls()] def _pairs_and_controls(self): """Return sequence of (index, key, value, control_index) of totally ordered pairs suitable for urlencoding. control_index is the index of the control in self.controls """ pairs = [] for control_index in range(len(self.controls)): control = self.controls[control_index] for ii, key, val in control._totally_ordered_pairs(): if ii is None: ii = -1 pairs.append((ii, key, val, control_index)) # stable sort by ONLY first item in tuple pairs.sort() return pairs def _request_data(self): """Return a tuple (url, data, headers).""" method = self.method.upper() parts = self._urlparse(self.action) rest, (query, frag) = parts[:-2], parts[-2:] frag def encode_data(x): if isinstance(x, unicode_type): x = x.encode(self.form_encoding) return x def encode_query(): p = [(encode_data(k), encode_data(v)) for k, v in self._pairs()] return urlencode(p) if method == "GET": if self.enctype != "application/x-www-form-urlencoded": raise ValueError("unknown GET form encoding type '%s'" % self.enctype) parts = rest + (encode_query(), None) uri = self._urlunparse(parts) return uri, None, [] elif method == "POST": parts = rest + (query, None) uri = self._urlunparse(parts) if self.enctype == "application/x-www-form-urlencoded": return (uri, encode_query(), [("Content-Type", self.enctype)]) elif self.enctype == "multipart/form-data": data = StringIO() http_hdrs = [] mw = MimeWriter(data, http_hdrs) mw.startmultipartbody( "form-data", add_to_http_hdrs=True, prefix=0) for ii, k, v, control_index in self._pairs_and_controls(): self.controls[control_index]._write_mime_data( mw, encode_data(k), encode_data(v)) mw.lastpart() return uri, data.getvalue(), http_hdrs else: raise ValueError("unknown POST form encoding type '%s'" % self.enctype) else: raise ValueError("Unknown method '%s'" % method) def _switch_click(self, return_type, request_class=_request.Request): # This is called by HTMLForm and clickable Controls to hide switching # on return_type. if return_type == "pairs": return self._pairs() elif return_type == "request_data": return self._request_data() else: req_data = self._request_data() req = request_class(req_data[0], req_data[1]) for key, val in req_data[2]: add_hdr = req.add_header if key.lower() == "content-type": try: add_hdr = req.add_unredirected_header except AttributeError: # pre-2.4 and not using ClientCookie pass add_hdr(key, val) return req